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Recent Projects

Featured Projects

Naval Air Station

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shim_trans  Summery
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shim_trans  Objective
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shim_trans  Project Background
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shim_trans  Scope of Work
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shim_trans  Bravo 25 Description
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shim_trans  Overview
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shim_trans  Crane Rail Removal
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shim_trans  Loss of Transverse
 Negative Moment
 Capacity over the
 Outboard Crane Rail
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shim_trans  Concrete Repair
 Materials
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shim_trans  Top Deck
 Repair Procedure
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shim_trans  Under Deck Repairs
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shim_trans  Cathodic Protection
 System
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shim_trans  Cathodic Protection
 System Installation
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shim_trans  Grout Resistivity
 Measurements
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shim_trans  Reinforcing Steel
 Lead Wire Installation
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shim_trans  Upgrade Reinforcement
 Introduction
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shim_trans  Analysis of Bravo-25
 Load Response
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shim_trans  Calculation of
 Bravo 25 Resistence
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shim_trans  Modes of Failure
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shim_trans  Bravo 25
 Upgrade Design
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shim_trans  Concrete Surface
 Preparation
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shim_trans  Embedded
 Reinforcement
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arrow_right  Wet Lay-up
 Composite Laminate
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shim_trans  Proof Tests using
 Impact Load Method
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shim_trans  Costs
 Acknowledgements
 References
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Turbine Deck Load Capacity Restored


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Home > Recently Completed Projects > Featured Project > Pearl Harbor

Featured Project

 

Wet Lay-Up Composite Laminate

Wet lay-up, carbon/epoxy laminate was chosen to externally reinforce the underside of Bravo 25. The contractor used Carbon Fiber Sheet system. The Carbon Fiber Sheets system consists of uniaxial carbon fiber tow sheets in an epoxy resin matrix (saturant). The epoxy saturant was formulated to provide completely wetting of all carbon fibers in each laminate ply. The saturant also provides a high interlaminar shear strength and bond with the concrete to develop the concrete shear and tensile strength.

 

The upgrade reinforcement for each structural element (center slab, track slab, and curb slab) required 5-plys of carbon laminate with an areal fiber weight of 0.06 lb/ft2 (300 g/m2) and a fiber strength of 500,000 psi (3,40 mPa). The laminate has a measured tensile strength of 18 kips/in.-width (5.8 kN/cm-width).

 

The design layout for the laminate included special consideration for three future construction projects on the Bravo Wharves:

  1. Special Project R25-97 “Structural Repairs and Fender Upgrade Bravo Dock B 25”
  2. MCON Project P-400 “Bilge and Oily Waste Collection and Processing Facilities Pearl Harbor Naval Complex, Hawaii
  3. MCON Project P-504 “Alter Electrical System Bravo/Mike Wharves”

These projects require hanging additional utilities and conduits, replacing utility hangers, and removing utilities and conduits under the Bravo Wharves. The upgrade design layout of laminate strips allowed clear surface space under Bravo 25. The clear areas (6 inch (15-cm) wide) were built in to bypass existing utility hangers as well as allow additional areas for the electrical power upgrade hangers and the oily waste recovery system.

 

The concrete surface was ground smooth (Figure 65) and abraded with a copper slag blasting after repairs were made and the ICCP system installed. Primer was applied to the entire surface area (Figure 66). After primer was applied, bugholes and other surface anomalies were filled with an epoxy paste (Figure 67). The paste was also used to fill concave areas on the surface. In most areas, the paste was applied to the entire surface to be reinforced (Figure 68). The first ply of the carbon tow was cut to length and applied after coating the concrete surface with an epoxy saturant (Figures 69 through 71). The saturant was worked into the tow sheet by hand, rolling and brushing to completely wet the carbon fibers. Excess saturant and bubbles were worked out with a squeegee and onion roller (Figure 72). The process of applying saturant and tow sheet was repeated for successive plies to obtain the required area of carbon for each structural element. The specifications did not allow holes to be cut in the composite when obstructions such as drains, pipe hangers, or other hardware were encountered. Instead, tow sheets were split along uniaxial fibers to bypass the obstruction (Figures 73 and 74). Although lap splices (a minimum of 8 inches (20 cm) in length) were allowed, all tow sheets were cut full –span-length. Five plies of finished laminate were less than 0.2 inch (5 mm) thick. For those areas where the required widths could not be obtained due to pipe hangers or other obstructions, additional plies were added to meet the required area of carbon reinforcement. The contractor also exercised the option of lowering or removing existing large hangers and reinstalling them after the laminate reinforcement was placed.

 

Strain gauges were encapsulated in the saturant between the laminate layers during installation. The gauges were positioned at crucial midspan points where outrigger load response would be greatest. The strain gauges were 5-inch (13 cm), 120-ohm, single wire element on paper backing. The gauges were placed in the uncured epoxy saturant at the tow sheet edge of the second laminate ply. Bridge completion units were externally added to the strain gauge circuits above the deck during the proof-testing phase of the project.

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Figure 65. Grinding concrete surface
in preparation for Carbon Fiber
Sheet installation.
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Figure 66. Applying Carbon Fiber
primer with roller.
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Figure 67. Applying epoxy putty to
fill bugholes and other
surface anomalies.
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Figure 68. Putty covering entire
surface of track slab.
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Figure 69. Cutting Carbon Fiber
tow sheet to length.
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Figure 70. Applying first layer of
saturant to bottom side of track slab.
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Figure 71. Applying first layer of
Carbon Fiber tow sheet to bottom
side of track slab.
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Figure 72. Working saturant into tow
sheet fibers with “onion” rollers
and removing air bubbles.
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Figure 73. Laminate placement in
strips to avoid large utility
hanger anchors.
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Figure 74. Finished reinforced track
slab with spaces for future
utility hangers.

 

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ACE Restoration & Waterproofing, Inc.
620 E. Walnut Ave.
Fullerton, CA 92831
714.526.7366
Fax: 714.526.7965

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  ACE Restoration and Waterproofing Quick Service Overview:
  Concrete repair; concrete restoration, structural upgrade, epoxy injection,
  waterproofing, and more concrete technologies in Fullerton California (CA)
  by ACE Restoration and Waterproofing.

  Concrete Repair, Concrete Restoration, Epoxy Injection, Waterproofing

http://www.acerestoration.net/

 

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